Metropolitan Discipline: Madrid


Madrid in the 90’s had a double characteristic that allowed it to establish the right approach and to build the prototype of the discipline. Madrid was growing fast for a developed economy (50% every 20 years) and was wealthy enough to be able to afford the infrastructures required (9.000 Euros of annual local public budget per family). Action had to be rationalized instead of continuing the usual partisan policies. Transparent rationality limits shadowy corruption. Politics fought back.

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